Labor movement publications called for an eight-hour day as early as 1836. Boston ship carpenters, although not unionized, achieved an eight-hour day in 1842.In 1864; the eight-hour day quickly became a central demand of the Chicago labor movement. The Illinois legislature passed a law in early 1867 granting an eight-hour day but had so many loopholes that it was largely ineffective. A citywide strike that began on 1 May 1867 shut down the city's economy for a week before collapsing. On 25 June 1868, Congress passed an eight-hour law for federal employees which were also of limited effectiveness. It established an eight-hour workday for laborers and mechanics employed by the Federal Government.